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Evgeny Grachikov1, Haiyan Xu 2
  • 1 Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Miklouho-Maclay St., 10/2, Moscow, Russian Federation, 117198,
  • 2 Institute of Political Science, Beijing, Shuguang xili, 28, PRC, 100028

China and the International System: The Formation of a Chinese Model of World Order

2022. Vol. 17. No. 1. P. 7–24 [issue contents]

During its 72-year history, PRC has gone through a difficult path of changing the diplomatic strategies of relations with the outside world. The first period, thirty years from 1949 to 1978, was ideological, directed by Mao Zedong and completely ignored international organizations (IOs). The second, the next 30 years (1978–2008) – economic, which was determined by Deng Xiaopingʼs policy of reforms and opening up, and the gradual embedding of the PRC in the IOs. Now China is implementing the third, political stage under the leadership of Xi Jinping, who set the country with the tasks of great power diplomacy and the formation of new / alternative international structures in which it plays a leading role and has a real impact on the future model of the system of international relations.The formation of the PRC in 1949 and the Korean War (1950–1953) that followed soon after, where Chinese “volunteer” soldiers fought with the united UN forces, blocked the possibility of contacts between the PRC and this universal international organization for two decades. The countryʼs internal problems in the form of a “cultural revolution” also did not contribute to the solution of this problem. Even the restoration of the PRCʼs rights in the UN in 1971, the establishment of diplomatic relations with the United States in 1979, and Deng Xiaopingʼs reforms could not significantly accelerate the PRCʼs accession to other international organizations. This process took about twenty more years and, on the whole, ended only in 2001 with the entry into the WTO. In the 21st century, especially after the 2008 global financial crisis, China began to actively use existing and create new international organizations with partner countries.The purpose of the article is to analyze the Chinese academic discourse on the problem of relations between the PRC and international organizations and international system, where Western countries, headed by the United States, dominate to this day, and China does not see a prospect for itself to take a place worthy of its complex power. The article examines the history of the formation of relations between the PRC and international system, identifies the reasons for the dissatisfaction of the PRC with its status in its structures and traces the process of creating international organizations in which China occupies a dominant position and in global competition with the United States can influence the future model of the world.The peculiarity of the article is that it mainly uses the works of Chinese authors who study the position of their country in relation to international system. It is concluded that China is actively formatting its geo-economic space, offering the countries of the Global South, which are part of it, not only material dividends, but also their values, development model and their view future model of the world.

This article was prepared as part of research project #20-514-93003 “Russia and China in the Global Political Space: Harmonization of National Interests in Global Governance” supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research and the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

Citation: Grachikov E., Xu H. (2022). China and the International System: The Formation of a Chinese Model of World Order. International Organisations Research Journal, vol. 17, no 1, pp. 7–24 (in English).
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