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John Kirton1, C Bracht (Translation ed. by: Marina Larionova 2)
  • 1 University of Toronto, 100, St. George, Ontario, Toronto, Canada, M5S 1A1
  • 2 RANEPA, 11 Prechistenskaya naberezhnaya, Moscow, 119034, Russia


2013. Vol. 8. No. 3. P. 162–168 [issue contents]

John J. Kirton–PhD in International Studies, Professor, Director of the G8 Research Group, Co-Director of the G20 Research Group of the University of Toronto, M5S 1A1, 100 St. George, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; E-mail: john.kirton@utoronto.ca 

Caroline Bracht– Researcher at the G20 Research Group of the University of Toronto, M5S 1A1, 100 St. George, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; E-mail: carolinebracht@gmail.com


Although, Canada successfully tackles inequality and social mobility in the country is high, income distribution is unfair: growth in incomes of Canada’s richest 1% of people is increasing and growth in incomes of the poorest is falling over the last decades. Moreover, inequality in Canada is growing faster than in the USA and other OECD countries. Inequality within Canada is increasing among individuals, within individual regions of the country, and within cities. The authors noted that there is less inequality in Atlantic Provinces than in resource-rich provinces such as Alberta. Income inequality is also growing in the largest Canadian cities: Vancouver, Toronto, and Montreal. The correlation between inequality and life expectancy was revealed. Income inequality is particularly acute among aboriginal (Indians) and non-aboriginal Canadians. Aboriginal Canadians have fewer opportunities for employment and they can not support their basic needs.

The causes of inequality are disparities in payment for high-skilled and low-skilled workers, shifts in the labour market: increasing numbers of self-employed people, whose incomes are decreasing, changes in redistribution through taxes and benefits, particularly, decline in spending on social programmes.

According to the authors inequality could be reduced through creating more and better jobs, investing in education, including life-long education, reforming tax and benefit policies, widening access to quality social services: health care, education, social care for the most vulnerable social groups.


Aboriginal Labour Market Performance in Canada Deteriorates Since 2007. Press Release (2012). Centre for Study of Living Standards. 20 June. Available at: www.csls.ca/PressReleaseJune202012.pdf (accessed 24.05.2013).

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Income Distribution – Inequality (2013). Paris: OECD. Available at: http://stats.oecd.org/Index. aspx?DataSetCode=INEQUALITY (accessed 24.05.2013).

Income Inequality (2013). Conference Board of Canada. Available at: www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/society/income-inequality.aspx (accessed 24.05.2013).

Income Inequality in Canada (2013). News Release Parliament of Canada. 18 March. Available at: ww w .parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?DocId=6037233&Mode=1&Parl=41&Ses=1&Language=E (accessed 24 May 2013).

Income Inequality Spikes in Canada’s Biggest Cities. News Release (2013). Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. 28 January. Available at: http://www. policyalternatives.ca/newsroom/news-releases/income-inequality-spikes-canadas-big-cities (accessed 24.05.2013).

Intergenerational Income Mobility (2013). Conference Board of Canada. Available at: ww w .conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/society/intergenerational-income-mobility.aspx (accessed 24.05.2013).

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Lammam C., Karabegovic A., Veldhuis N. (2012) Measuring Income Mobility in Canada. Fraser Institute. Available at: http://ww w .fraserinstitu-te.org/uploadedFiles/fraser-ca/Content/research-news/research/publications/measuring-income-mobility-in-canada.pdf (accessed 24.05.2013).

OECD (2013a) Divided We Stand: Why Inequality Keeps Rising. Country Report Canada. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available at: www.oecd.org/canada/49177689.pdf (accessed 24.05.2013).

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Sarlo C. (2009) The Economic Well-Being of Canadians: Is there a Growing Gap. Fraser Institute. Available at: http://ww w .fraserinstitute.org/publica- tiondisplay.aspx?id=13502&terms=inequality  (accessed 24.05.2013).

Scott Brison Introduces Motion to Study Income Inequality (2012). House of Commons Debate. April 25. Available at: http://ww w .brison.ca/newssho w .asp?int_ id=81032 (date of access: 24.05.2013).

Towards a More Equal Canada (2012). Broadbent Institute. October. Available at: http://www.broadbentinstitute.ca/sites/default/files/documents/towards_a_more_equal_canada.pdf (accessed 24.05.2013).

Wilson D., Macdonald D. (2010) The Income Gap between Aboriginal Peoples and the Rest of Canada. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. Available at: ww w .policyalternatives.ca/publications/reports/income-gap-between-aboriginal-peoples-and-rest-canada (accessed 24.05.2013).

Yalnizyan A. (2010) The Rise of Canada’s Riches 1%.  Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. Available at: http://ww w .policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/National%20Office/2010/12/Richest%201%20Percent.pdf (accessed 24.05.2013).

Citation: Kirton John J, Bracht C (2013) Kanada [Canada] INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS RESEARCH JOURNAL, 3 (in Russian)
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