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Ivan Zakharov1, Maksim Agafoshin1
  • 1 Institute for African Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 30/1, Spiridonovka str., Moscow, 123001, Russia

Reform of Asylum Policy and Control of Illegal Migration: Pan-European and Polish Approaches

2023. Vol. 18. No. 3. P. 92–106 [issue contents]

This article considers the development of pan-European and Polish asylum policy and control of illegal migration after the peak of the migration crisis in 2015–16. A sharp increase in the migration burden on the European Union (EU) during this period revealed systemic problems of political regulation of migration in the EU and provoked a confrontation of the interests of national and supranational actors. Despite the decline of migration flows from developing countries in Africa and Asia, the migration policy crisis has worsened over time. It is shown that the consistent position of Poland, coupled with the consolidation of the Visegrad Group, had a noticeable impact on the direction of migration policy reform. This study is based on the regulation acts of the EU, the new Migration and Asylum Pact, the diagnostic document of the Polish migration policy, and other programme documents that are positioned as the basis for the upcoming reforms. The results of the analysis of the provisions concerning the asylum policy and the control of illegal migration indicate that a compromise between national and supranational interests is emerging. The documents reviewed give priority to securitization and to reducing the risks of potential migration crises. The key mechanism for the implementation of the latter is the externalization of migration policy by creating a buffer zone in the Balkan countries, North Africa, and Turkey, which will be entrusted to coordinate migration flows and contain them in case of a crisis. Nevertheless, these measures will require not only a significant increase in financial costs, but also an even greater increase in the role of supranational actors, primarily Frontex and the European Union Agency for Asylum, by expanding their powers in EU members. For its part, Poland sees this as a challenge to national sovereignty, as well a risk to national and regional security. The confrontation of national and supranational interests carries risks for the much-needed reform of the aspects of migration policy under consideration and decreases the chances of successfully overcoming possible migration crisis.

The research is supported by Russian Science Foundation under the grant № 22-18-00123: https://rscf.ru/en/project/22-18-00123/

This article was submitted 15.06.2023

Citation: Zakharov I., Agafoshin M. (2023). Reform of Asylum Policy and Control of Illegal Migration: Pan-European and Polish Approaches. International Organisations Research Journal, vol. 18, no 3, pp. 92-106 (in English).
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