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Sergey Mikhnevich1,2
  • 1 Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) Business Council, 109240, Moscow, Kotelnitcheskaya nab. 17
  • 2 Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs (RSPP), 109240, Moscow, Kotelnitcheskaya nab. 17

Smart Power in Institutionalization of International Relations

2015. Vol. 10. No. 4. P. 93–114 [issue contents]
he article analyzes the smart power factor in institutional changes in international relations, the main elements and features, and the importance of interaction on the issue of “power” in the evolution of international system and subsystems. International relations is currently in a process of transformation, related to the dramatic increase in opportunities for transborder interaction among different communities and social groups. The result could be the creation of the new identity that exists beyond the states’ borders. The wide practice of the transborder contacts increases the significance of values and ideology in international interaction. At the same time, the background for the transformation of international relations is the globalization that exacerbates the socioeconomic divide, the political divide and the value divide. As the result, there is an exponential increase in global political uncertainty and the international weakness of states. One effective remedy to systematize interactions and eliminate uncertainty is the establishment of complex institutional structures, which reflect the convictions and values of societies and communities in the course of history. Therefore, building appropriate institutes can significantly ease many existing international problems, including ones connected with the changing international environment. Another important thing is to provide mutual benefits for all involved actors. Otherwise, the established systems would not be significantly efficient. The decrease in the international capacities of the states also appears in the decrease of the hard power source to promote national interests. The significance of soft power is constantly rising. However, soft power does not involve direct action regarding the politics of other states. Smart power, which combines hard power for compulsion and vengeance and soft power for persuasion and attraction, is more effective and adequate. An actor’s capacity to promote smart power is closely linked with contextual intellect and existing path dependence rooted in culture and historical experience, which shapes the collective cognition and perception of events and occurrences. Such factors directly influence the process of international institutionalization. In analyzing smart power aspects, this article draws attention to the concept of the “three faces of power.” In addition, it points out the determinant meaning of security in international processes, which accounts for most important decisions of elites in the process of definization, the process of decision making regarding the national interests. Improving security can be treated as decreasing uncertainty, including by means of institutionalization and collective smart power implementation.
Citation: Mikhnevich S. (2015) Smart Power in Institutionalization of International Relations. International Organisations Research Journal, vol. 10, no 4, pp. 93-114 (in Russian and English). DOI: 10.17323/1966-7845-2015-04-93.
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